PoD: In the 1880’s, European colonists came to the Horn of Africa to set up colonies. In this ATL, they failed, amidst fierce resistance from the local clans. One of these clans, the Majeerteen, would go on to unite the region, altering the course of history.
1880s-1910s: Founding the Empire
After their victory, the Majeerteen used the weapons acquired from the Europeans to conquer the adjacent clans. Many clans voluntarily submitted to the Majeerteen – others, such as the Warsangeli, took to arms to defend their land. But ultimately, the Majeerteen were stronger. Next, the Issaq lands were conquered, and the Harti Empire was born. In the 1890’s, the Empire conquered the Hawiye lands. This show of force prompted the remaining Darod clans to join the Empire. Following a period of reorganization, the Empire resumed its conquests, and by 1911, controlled the entire region, including the Afar and Oromo clans and the Abyssinians. In 1912, the Greater Harti Sultanate of Somalia was proclaimed.
1910s-1930s: Age of Expansion
With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Somalia saw its chance and made an incursion into Sudan and Egypt. It failed to gain access to the Nile, but managed to win over the Beja clan, in the process starting a long-running feud with the British. Next, Somalia absorbed various clans in Kenya, before capturing much of the Swahili coast. By 1930, large portions of the British possessions in East Africa had fallen under Somali rule. Next, Somalia conquered the rest of the Swahili coast, along with Madagascar and the adjacent islands. Finally, it took over Yemen, Dhofar and Socotra, and at the turn of the next decade, the Somali Empire was stronger than ever.
1940s-1990s: Age of Turmoil
Somalia was hesitant to enter World War II, but joined the Allies at the end. After the war, it adopted a neutralist policy, and in 1961, became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. The 60s and 70s were turmoiled years, with uprisings spreading across Africa. In the North, the Berber peoples united and founded Tamazgha. And in the West, a Hausa-Fulani alliance took over and founded Sokoto. Eventually, all of Africa was decolonized. In the 80s. Central Africa, destabilized by the fall of the colonial empires, erupted into a region-wide civil war. Each of the adjacent states, including Somalia, supported a number of groups, keeping the war alive for decades. When the war expanded further south, South Africa and several others founded the Khoisan Republic.
2000s-present: A Brighter Future?
To this day, Somalia remains the most powerful player on the continent. It was never alone in trying to dominate the continent, however, as proven by the still ongoing Bantu Civil War. And despite international efforts to stop it, major players both in and outside Africa continue to support various groups. The rest of Africa is somewhat stable, however. In recent years, Somalia has worked to improve its relations with other states. In 2005, Somalia founded the Hamitic Council with Tamazgha and Egypt, and in 2016, peace talks are to begin between Somalia, Sokoto, Khoisan and Sudan to end to the Bantu Civil War. Perhaps that will lead to a brighter future for all of Africa.
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