In October 732 AD, the Umayyad Caliphate won the Battle of Tours, defeating the Franks and leaving the rest of Europe almost defenseless. While the armies in Western Europe reached the Rhine, the armies in Anatolia took most of the peninsula and fought for control over the city of Constantinople. Victory in Constantinople paves the way for a campaign for the takeover of Southeastern Europe and the Italian Peninsula. After the capture of Southern Italy, a bloody battle occurred in Rome, and as the city fell to the Caliphate, the rest of the Italian Peninsula was soon captured as well. The resulting instability allowed the Caliphate to be successful in its Southeastern European campaign, defeating the Roman Empire and the surrounding nations. Eventually, everything south of the Rhine and Danube Rivers, as well as Eastern Romania and Southern Ukraine, was under the rule of the Caliphate. The Caliphate then expanded its lands in Africa and Western Asia, before ending its wars and focusing more on local issues within the Caliphate. A long period of relative peace and stability known as pax Islamica now began, although non-Arabic populations groups would occasionally riot and foreign invaders would threaten the borders.
As the Nordic Empire
rose to the north of the Caliphate, peace and stability was greatly threatened, and conflicts ensued between the two powers. Following civil unrest in former Gaul, the northern parts of the region were lost to the Nordic Empire, but the Caliphate managed to prevent further loss of land.
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